Thin polymer layers on solid substrates are of high technological importance due to their increasing potential for applications in electronics, sensors, nanotechnology and biotechnology. Appropriate characterisation methods are necessary for the design and analysis of devices made using such materials. This review article focuses upon presenting the many analytical possibilities for quantitative evaluation of the optical constants and thickness of polymer layers by combined application of spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) in the visible (vis) and infrared (IR) spectral range.
UV and Visible Spectroscopy
UV/vis reflection spectroscopy is a practical method to investigate pulp ageing, especially when reflectance spectra are converted to absorbance (k/s) spectra. Even if detailed reaction paths cannot be solved with this technique alone, it provides a very fast and simple method to study the changes in the concentrations of certain important pulp components during ageing. In addition, the concentrations of these components have been studied also in other pulp processes, such as mechanical and chemical pulp bleaching.
As the first compact on-line instruments for use in the field have been on the market for several years, this article reviews their capabilities and applications.
G. Langergraber,a J. van den Broeke,b,* W. Lettlb and A. Weingartnerb
aInstitute for Sanitary Engineering and Water Pollution Control, BOKU - University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna, Muthgasse 18, A-1190 Vienna, Austria. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Richard P. Tuckett
School of Chemistry, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
Thermo Electron has concluded an OEM agreement with SOTAX AG.
Gabriel Pinto and Isabel Paz
Departamento de Ingeniería Química Industrial y del Medio Ambiente, E.T.S.I. Industriales, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, José Gutiérrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid, Spain