In this article the question of the certification of calibration samples for the characterisation of advanced thin film materials is addressed within the framework of reliable process control or quality management purposes. Reference measurement techniques can be used in order to address the gap in appropriate certified reference materials (CRMs) for thin film analyses. They allow for qualifying out-of-production samples originating from an operating production line as calibration samples. As a template for this procedure, CIGS [Cu(In,Ga)Se2] layers, that are absorber layers for high efficiency thin-film solar cells, have been used for establishing and validating reference-free X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis and Auger-electron spectroscopy (AES) as reference measurement techniques.
Raman, infrared, x-ray photoelectron and ultraviolet/visible spectroscopies are being used at the University of Liverpool to help develop better energy storage devices.
RBD Instruments have release the microCMA, compact cylindrical mirror analyser (CMA) for Auger electron spectroscopy.